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Team Members

​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​​Team Members by Research Area​

 




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​Clean Energy & Transportation Leadership


 

 

 

Richard Boardman, Ph.D.https://bios.inl.gov/Lists/Researcher/DisplayOverrideForm.aspx?ID=216Richard Boardman, Ph.D.Dr. Richard Boardman oversees the INL Clean Energy Platform for Integrated Energy Systems development. His staff develops computational tools and test facilities supporting the design, assessment, integration, optimization, and control of industry-scale hybrid energy systems. Hybrid energy systems operate in a closely-coupled, dynamic manner to enhance the systems technical, economic, and environmental performance. Boardman is also responsible for coordination of DOE Laboratories, government, universities, regional stakeholders, and industry for this effort. After receiving his doctorate in chemical engineering from Brigham Young University, he worked for Exxon Production Research and Geneva Steel Mill, then joined Idaho National Laboratory in 1990.  His personal expertise includes combustion, gasification, synthetic fuels process development, gas cleanup, and atmospheric environmental chemistry.<div class="ExternalClass78F7444E82ED496C83757B81A52F9E63"><p>​Ph.D., Chemical Engineering - Brigham Young University</p><p>Integrated B.S./M.S., Chemical Engineering - Brigham Young University</p></div><div class="ExternalClassE3C7ED4F7B07405EA24C690A4CA24818"><p>American Institute of Chemical Engineers</p><p>Phi Kappa Phi National Honor Society</p><p>Tau Beta Pi Engineering Honor Society</p><p>Idaho Academy of Sciences</p></div><div class="ExternalClassAA3EC07FE5D54372B3C3B3ABBFD28A1E"><p>(2014) M.F. Ruth, O.R. Zinaman, M. Antkowiak, R.D. Boardman, R.S. Cherry, M.D. Bazilian, “Nuclear-Renewable Hybrid Energy Systems: Opportunities, Interconnections, and Needs,” Energy Conversion and Management 78, 684–694</p><p> </p><p>(2013) R.D. Boardman, M.B. Bearden, et al., Logistics, Costs, and GHG Impacts of Utility-Scale Cofiring with 20% Biomass, Joint Idaho National Laboratory and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Technical Report, INL/EXT-12-25252; PNNL-22320</p><p> </p><p>(2012) R.S. Cherry, S.E. Aumeier, and R.D. Boardman, “Large Hybrid Energy Systems for Making Low CO2 Load-Following Power and Synthetic Fuel,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2012, 5, 5489</p><p> </p><p>(2012) J.S. Tumuluru, R.D. Boardman, C.T. Wright, J.R. Hess, “Some Chemical Compositional Changes in Miscanthus and White Oak Sawdust Samples During Torrefaction,” Energies, 2012, 5, 3928-3947</p><p> </p><p>(2012) J.S. Tumuluru, T. Kremer, C.T. Wright, R.D. Boardman, “Proximate and Ultimate Composition Changes in Corn Stover during Torrefaction using Themogravimetic Analysis and Microwaves,” 2012 ASABE Annual International Meeting, Dallas, Texas, Paper 121337298, July 29-August 1, 2012</p><p> </p><p>(2012) J.S. Tumuluru, J.R. Hess, R.D. Boardman, C.T. Wright, T.L. Westover, “Formulation, Pretreatment, and Densification Options to Improve Biomass Specification for Co-Firing High Percentages with Coal,” Industrial Biotechnology, Vol. 8, No. 3, June 2012</p><p> </p><p>(2012) J.S. Tumuluru, R.D. Boardman, C.T. Wright, “Response Surface Analysis of Elemental Composition and Energy Properties of Corn Stover During Torrefaction, Journal of Biobased Materials and Bioenergy, Vol. 6, No. 1, 2012</p><p> </p><p>(2011) R.D. Boardman, R.A. Wood, A.M. Gandrik, T.K. Foulke, D.A. Bell, W.C. Schaffers, The Feasibility of Sitting Coal Gasification and Synfuels Plants in Wyoming, INL/EXT-11-22510, June 2011</p><p> </p><p>(2011) L.O. Nelson, E. Robertson, R.A. Wood, A.M. Gandrik, M.G. McKellar, R.D. Boardman, Integration of High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors into Select Industrial Process Application, INL/EXT-11-23008, August, 2011</p><p> </p><p>(2011) L.O. Nelson, R.A. Wood, A.M. Gandrik, M.G. McKellar, R.D. Boardman, Integration of High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors into Industrial Process Application, INL/EXT-11-23008, May, 2010</p><p> </p><p>(2011) S.E. Aumeier, R.S. Cherry, R.D. Boardman, and J. Smith, “Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems:  Imperative, Prospects and Challenges, Energy Procedia, 7, 51-54</p><p> </p><p>(2010) J.S. Tumuluru, S. Sokhansanj, C.T. Wright, R.D. Boardman, Biomass Torrefaction Process Review and Moving Bed Torrefaction System Model Development, INL/EXT-10-19569, August, 2010</p><p> </p><p>(2010) R.D. Boardman, J.S. Shankar Tumuluru, C.T. Wright, and G.L. Gresham, “Methods for Determining Chemical Mechanisms of Biomass Torrefaction,” Proceedings of the 2010 AIChE Annual Meeting, Paper #197543, Salt Lake City, Utah, November, 2010</p><p> </p><p>(2008) K. Omar, R.D. Boardman, R.A. Carrington, “Evaluation of Oil Shale for Multi-Pollutant Emission Control from Coal Combustion,” 33rd Proceedings of the International Technical Conference on Coal Utilization & Fuel Systems, (Vol. 2) 830-815, June 2008</p><p> </p><p>(2005) R.D. Boardman, H.J. Gatley, B.D. Phillips, “EPA SBIR Phase I Final Report, Novel Process for the Management and Mitigation of Tar and Oil Byproducts from Solid Waste Gasification,” Contract No. EP-D-05-046, Project No. Pr-NC-04-10311</p><p> </p><p>(2005)  R.D. Boardman, R.A. Carrington, Design and Testing of Differential Reactor and Novel Sorbents for Multi-Pollutant Control, INL/EXT-05-0001</p><p> </p><p>(2005) R.D. Boardman, R.A. Carrington, and R. Wood, FutureGen Supporting Technologies Study—FutureGen Plant Evaluation, INL/EXT-05-0004</p><p> </p><p>(2004) R.D. Boardman, M.K. Clemens, J.A. Del Debbio, R.J. Kirkham, R. Geosits, “Zero Release Mixed Waste Process Facility Design and Testing,” Proceedings of Waste Management, 2004, Tucson, AZ, paper 4477, March 2004</p><p> </p><p>(2004) N.R. Soelberg, D.W. Marshall, R.D. Boardman, “Fluidized-Bed Steam Reforming for Mixed and Radioactive Wastes,” Proceedings of Waste Management, 2004, Tucson, AZ, paper 4495, March 2004</p><p> </p><p>(2004) R.D. Boardman, B.H. O’Brien, et. al., High Temperature MACT Calcination Test, INEEL/EXT 04-01625 </p><p> </p><p>(2001) R.D. Boardman, L.J. Young, N.R. Soelberg, NWCF Calciner Emissions Inventory- Final Report for the Phase IV Testing, INEEL/EXT-01-00260</p><p> </p><p>(1997) R.D. Boardman, Alternative Calcination Report, INEEL/EXT-97-00654</p><p> </p><p>(1996) W. Chen, L.D. Smoot, T.H. Fletcher, and R.D. Boardman, “A Computational Method for Determining Global Fuel-NO Rate Expressions. Part 1.” Energy & Fuels, 10, 1036</p><p> </p><p>(1995) R.D. Boardman, “Membrane, Selective Precipitation, and Freeze Crystallization Processes,” in Separation Techniques in Nuclear Waste Management, (T. Carleson, edt.), CRC Press, New York</p><p> </p><p>(1995) R.D. Boardman, J.A. Murphy, and L.F. Pincock, “Case Study of Selection Processes for INEL Wastes,” in Separation Techniques in Nuclear Waste Management, (T. Carleson, edt.), CRC Press, New York</p><p> </p><p>(1993) R.D. Boardman, C.N. Eatough, L.D. Smoot, and J. Germane, “Comparison of Measurements and Predictions of Flame Structure and Thermal NOx in a Swirling, Natural Gas Diffusion Flame,” Combustion Science and Technology, 93, 1-6</p><p> </p><p>(1993) R.D. Boardman and L.D. Smoot, “Pollution Formation and Control” in Fundamentals of Coal Combustion: For Clean and Efficient Use, (L.D. Smoot, edt.), Coal Science and Technology Volume 20, Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam, The Netherlands</p><p> </p><p>(1993) L.D. Smoot, R.D. Boardman, B.S. Brewster, B.S. Hill, and A.K. Folli, “Development and Application of an Acid Rain Precursor Model for Practical Furnaces,” Energy and Fuel, 7, 786</p><p> </p><p>(1992) R.D. Boardman, B.S. Brewster, Z. Haque, L.D. Smoot, and G.D. Silcox, “Modeling Sorbent Injection and Sulfur Capture in Pulverized Coal Combustion, Transactions of the ASME, FACT-Vol. 15, Air Toxic Reduction and Combustion Modeling</p><p> </p><p>(1988) R.D. Boardman and L.D. Smoot, “Prediction of Nitric Oxide in Advanced Combustion Systems,” AIChE Journal, 34, No. 9, 1573</p></div>https://bios.inl.gov/BioPhotos/Richard%20Boardman.jpgLRM (Laboratory Relationship Manager) Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Technology Office
J. Richard Hess, Ph.D.https://bios.inl.gov/Lists/Researcher/DisplayOverrideForm.aspx?ID=72J. Richard Hess, Ph.D.Dr. Hess has recently taken on the role of Director of the EERE Program Office. He oversees and leads development of top level strategic planning between EEST and DOE EERE to ensure high impact, integrated, and objective-driven EERE programs at INL. Richard is also the acting Director for the Systems Science and Engineering Division, which includes the departments of Systems Analyses and Engineering and Environmental and Geological Engineering. Richard managed INL’s Bioenergy Program, which focused on the cost-effective use of lignocellulosic crop residues in biorefining operations. He oversaw the preparation of a higher-value biomass feedstock, and also managed the design and construction of one of DOE’s five biomass demonstration units. Hess holds a doctorate in plant sciences from Utah State University, and master’s and bachelor’s degrees in botany from Brigham Young University. Following graduate school, he served as an Agriculture Congressional Science Fellow in the Washington, D.C., office of Sen. Thomas Daschle. In this role, he supported many important national agriculture research issues, including new and industrial uses of agricultural products, federal grain inspection standards and plant variety protection. <div class="ExternalClass680C154701744FEBB306FCAEF538E186"><p>​Ph.D., Plant Science - Utah State University</p><p>M.S., Botany - Brigham Young University</p><p>B.S., Botany - Brigham Young University</p></div><div class="ExternalClass1EC321EB70274CCABCC2C98BCCBF65CE"><div>American Society of Agronomy</div><div>Crop Science Society of America</div></div><div class="ExternalClass7DB1CFC44F2B40809B9B4DE0D47705E0"><div>​Hess JR, Kenney KL, Wright CT, Perlack R, Turhollow A (TBD) Corn stover availability for biomass conversion: situation analysis. Cellulose (Accepted for publication Spring 2009).</div><div><br> </div><div>Hess JR, Kenney KL, Ovard L, Searcy EM, Wright CT (2009) Uniform-format solid feedstock supply system: a commodity-scale design to produce an infrastructure-compatible bulk solid from lignocellulosic biomass. INL/EXT-08-14752 www.inl.gov/bioenergy/uniform-feedstock (Accessed 6 May 2009).</div><div><br> </div><div>Hess JR, Wright C, Kenney KL (2007) Cellulosic biomass feedstocks and logistics for ethanol production. Biofuels, Bioproducts, and Biorefining 1:181-190 https://inlportal.inl.gov/portal/server.pt/gateway/PTARGS_0_1830_12163_0_0_18/fulltext.pdf (Accessed 15 may 2009).</div><div><br> </div><div>Fales SL, Wilhelm WW, Hess JR (2007) Convergence of agriculture and energy II: Producing cellulosic biomass for biofuels. Ames, Iowa: Council for Agricultural Science and Technology, 2007.</div><div><br> </div><div>Mann, N. R.,  R. S. Herbst, V. Kochergin, J. R. Hess (2004) “A Concept for Enhanced Flux, Erosion Resistant Membranes for Biomass Separations,” Filtration Journal, Submitted for publication, 2004.</div><div><br> </div><div>Wright, Christopher T., Peter A. Pryfogle, Nathan A. Stevens, Eric D. Steffler, J. Richard Hess, and Thomas H. Ulrich (2004).  Biomechanics of Wheat/Barley Straw and Corn Stover.  The 26th Symposium of Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals held in Chattanooga, TN. May 9-12, 2004.</div><div><br> </div><div>Houghton, T.P., D.N. Thompson, J.R. Hess, J.A. Lacey, M.P. Wolcott, A. Schirp, K. Englund, D. Dostal, and F. Loge. (2004).  Fungal upgrading of wheat straw for straw-thermoplastics production. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol., 113-116:71-93.</div><div><br> </div><div>Hess JR, Foust TD, Wright L, Sokhansanj S, Cushman JH, Easterly JL, Erbach DC, Hettenhaus JR, Hoskinson RL, Sheehan JJ, Tagore S, Thompson DN, Turhollow A (2003) Roadmap for agriculture biomass feedstock supply in the United States. DOE/NE-ID-11129 http://devafdc.nrel.gov/pdfs/8245.pdf  (Accessed 6 May 2009).</div></div>Bioenergy Technologieshttps://bios.inl.gov/BioPhotos/Richard%20Hess.jpgDirector, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Office Program (EERE)
Rob Hovsapian, Ph.D.https://bios.inl.gov/Lists/Researcher/DisplayOverrideForm.aspx?ID=23Rob Hovsapian, Ph.D.Dr. Rob Hovsapian is a research scientist at Idaho National Laboratory, holding the position of power and energy integration group lead, the principle investigator for advanced energy system research. He earned his doctorate in mechanical engineering – Energy Systems in 2009 from Florida State University with his dissertation “Thermodynamic Optimization of a Solar System for Cogeneration of Water Heating/Purification and Absorption Cooling.” Prior to joining INL he was a program manager for USNAVY – ONR’s The Electric Ship Research and Development Consortium (ESRDC) a $96Mil 10 year research & development program.  His industry experience has been with General Dynamics, as a computer integrated manufacturing manager developed one of the earlier integrated 3D printing; with Northrop-Grumman, as an integrated product team leader and system architect; and with Northrup-Grumman/TRW as a program manager in the Pacific Rim. He has been responsible for the successful establishment /deployment of several advanced flexible manufacturing startup facilities globally. While working for INL, from January 2012 to September 2013 he was stationed at the Energy Department’s headquarters in Washington, D.C., providing management and operating support to the Wind and Water program.<div class="ExternalClassB77AEB76DB954AC59A7BA4634E932C5A"><p>​Ph.D., Mechanical Engineering - Florida State University</p><p>M.S., Mechanical Engineering - Florida State University</p><p>B.S., Mechanical Engineering - University of Alabama</p><p>A.S., Science - Gadsen State Jr. College</p></div><div class="ExternalClass94E20E7C959E47039EA420B9923A5AC4"><p>​Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)<br>American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)<br>Engineers Without Borders (EWB) </p></div><div class="ExternalClassC83142012ADB47F4A4497DF6463937BF"><p>"Significance of Dynamic and Transient Analysis in the Design and Operation of Hybrid Energy Systems", Mayank Panwar, Manish Mohanpurkar, Julian D. Osorio, Rob Hovsapian, <a href="http://meetings.ans.org/npic-hmit2015/"><span style="text-decoration:underline;">9th International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Plant Instrumentation, Control, and Human Machine Interface Technologies (NPIC&HMIT 2015)</span></a>.</p><p> </p><p>"Dynamic Modeling of Adjustable-Speed Pumped Storage Hydropower Plant", E. Muljadi, M. Singh, V. Gevorgian, M. Mohanpurkar, R. Hovsapian, IEEE PES General Meeting 2015.</p><p> </p><p>"Wake Flow Simulations for a Mid-Sized Rim Driven Wind Turbine", Accepted - 32nd AIAA Applied Aerodynamics Conference - Aviation and Aeronautics Forum and Exposition 2014.</p><p> </p><p>"Temperature and Pressure Drop Model for Gaseous Helium Cooled Superconducting DC Cables", Ordonez, Juan C., Souza, Jeferson A,  Shah, Darshit R., Vargas, José V. C., Hovsapian, Rob, IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity (Print), v. 23, p. 5402005-5402005, 2013.</p><p> </p><p>"Enhancing Senior Capstone Design Course Through International and Multidisciplinary Projects",  R. Hovsapian, C. Shih, O. Okoli, Florida A&M University/Florida State University 118th American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Annual Conference, 2012 San Antonio, Texas.</p><p> </p><p>"Variable Speed Direct Drive Wind Controller For a Rim Driven Wind Turbine", C. Hubbard, R. Hovsapian, S. Kosaraju, Proceedings of the ASME 2012 6th International Conference on Energy Sustainability.</p><p> </p><p>"Performance Evaluation of Experimental Rim-Drive Wind Turbine", S. Kosaraju, R. Hovsapian, Proceedings of the ASME 2012 6th International Conference on Energy Sustainability.</p><p> </p><p>"A Mesh Generation Strategy for Representing Hull Geometry in ESRDC Ship Thermal Simulation and Visualization", Dilay, Emerson, Vargas, José Viriato Coelho, Ordonez, Juan Carlos, Hovsapian, Rob, Chalfant, J., Chryssostomidis, C., 2012 Summer Simulation Multiconference - Grand Challenges in Modeling & Simulation 2012, Genova. GCMS 2012 - SCS, 2012. v.1. p.1-10.</p><p> </p><p>"An Overview of Our Experience Integrating Multidisciplinary and International Design Projects within the Senior Capstone Design Course", R. Hovsapian, C. Shih, B. Harvey, O. Okoli, Florida A&M University/Florida State University 118th American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) Annual Conference, 2011 Vancouver, British Columbia.</p><p> </p><p>"ESRDC Ship Notional Baseline Medium Voltage Direct Current (MVDC) Architecture Thermal Simulation and Visualization", J. C. Vargas, J. Souza, R. Hovsapian, J. C.  Ordonez, T.  Chiocchio, J. Chalfant and C. Chryssostomidis, Grand Challenges in Modeling & Simulation Part of the 2011 Summer Simulation  Multiconference 2011 (SummerSim 2011) The Hague, Netherlands.</p><p> </p><p>"POWER CURVE DATA ANALYSIS FOR RIM DRIVEN WIND TURBINE", Rankin, R. Hovsapian, S. Poroseva, ASME 2011 Early Career Technical Journal - Vol. 10.</p><p> </p><p>"Thermal Modeling of Helium Cooled High-Temperature Superconducting DC Transmission Cable", J.A. Souza, J.C. Ordonez, R. Hovsapian, J.V.C. Vargas, Applied Superconductivity, IEEE Transactions on , vol.21, issue 3, no.99, pp. 947-952, 2011.</p><p> </p><p>"Cross-Platform Validation of Notional Baseline Architecture Models of Naval Electric Ship Power Systems", H. Ali, R. Dougal, A.Ouroua, R. Hebner, M. Steurer, M. Andrus, J.Langston, K. Schoder, R. Hovsapian University of South Carolina, IEEE Electric Ship Technologies Symposium, Alexandria, Virginia, 2011, pp78-83.</p><p> </p><p>"Control Volume based Thermodynamic Modeling Applied to the Thermal Management of a Notional All-Electric Ship", J.A. Souza, J.C. Ordonez, J.V.C. Vargas, R. Hovsapian, IEEE Electric Ship Technologies Symposium, Alexandria, Virginia, 2011.</p><p> </p><p>"ESRDC Ship Notional Baseline Medium Voltage Direct Current (MVDC) Architecture Thermal Simulation and Visualization," J.V.C. Vargas, J.A. Souza, R. Hovsapian, J.C. Ordonez, T. Chiocchio, J. Chalfant and C. Chryssostomidis, Grand Challenges in Modeling and Simulation Conference, The Hague, The Netherlands, June 2011.</p><p> </p><p>"Thermal Modeling of High-Temperature Superconducting DC Transmission Cable", J. A. Souza, J. C. Ordonez, R. Hovsapian and J. C. Vargas, Applied Superconductivity Conference (ASC), Washington, D.C 2010, August 1- 6, 2011.</p><p> </p><p>"Notional All-Electric Ship Systems Integration Thermal Simulation and Visualization", Vargas, J.V.C., Souza, Jeferson Ávila,  Hovsapian, R., Ordonez, Juan Carlos, Chiocchio, T., Chalfant J.,  Chryssostomidis, C.,  Dilay, Emerson, Simulation (San Diego, Calif.), v. 88, p. 1116-1128, 2012.</p><p> </p><p>"Visualization tool for notional all-electric ships data bases", Souza, Jeferson, Ávila, O`Lary, Franklin, Hovsapian, R , Ordonez, Juan Carlos, Vargas, J.V.C., Chalfant, J., Summer Simulation Multiconference, 2010, Ottawa, Canada. Grand Challenges in Modeling & Simulation, July 11-14, 2010. v.1. p.1-10.</p><p> </p><p>"Notional All-Electric Ship Thermal Simulation and Visualization", F. Dias, J. Sauza, J. Ordonez, J. Vargas, R. Hovsapian, Amy Jr, J. V., IEEE Electric Ship Technologies Symposium. Baltimore, MD 2009.</p><p> </p><p>"Notional Thermal Database Visualization Tool for All-Electric Ships", Souza, Jeferson Ávila, Hovsapian R., Ordonez, Juan Carlos, Vargas, J.V.C, The Huntsville Simulation Conference, 2009, Huntsville, Alabama, USA. HSC Proceedings 2009, 2009. v.1. p.1-1.</p><p> </p><p>"Modeling and Simulation of the Thermal and Psychrometric Transient Response of All Electric Ships, Internal Compartments and Cabinets", J.C. Ordonez, J.V.C. Vargas, R. Hovsapian, Transactions of the Society for Modeling and Simulation International Manuscript v. 84, p. 427-439, March 2008.</p><p> </p><p>"Modeling, Simulation and Optimization of a Solar System for Water Heating and Absorption Cooling", J.C.Varga, J.C. Ordonez, R. Hovsapian, F. G. Dias, Energy Sustainability 2008, Jacksonville, FL 2008, Proceedings of ES2008, New York, ASME, 2008. v. 1. p. 1-10.        </p><p> </p><p>"All electric ships, internal compartments and cabinets thermal and psychrometric Simulation", J.C.Vargas, J.C. Ordonez, R. Hovsapian, F. G. Dias, Grand Challenges in Modeling & Simulation (GCMS'08)  Edinburgh, Scotland 2008.</p><p> </p><p>"Thermodynamic Optimization of a Solar System for Cogeneration of Heat and Cold", R. Hovsapian, J.C.Vargas, J.C. Ordonez, Krothapalli, Anjeneyulu, Parise, Jose and Berndsen, Julio, International Journal of Energy Research, v.32, p.1210-122, 2008 </p><p> </p><p>"Modeling and simulation of the heart's temperature distribution in cardiac surgeries as a function of the coronary blood flow", Dias, Fernando Gallego,  Vargas, J. V. C., Brioschi, Marcos Leal , Ordonez, Juan Carlos ; Hovsapian, R., 12th Brazilian Congress of Thermal Engineering and Sciences, 2008, Belo Horizonte, Proceedings of ENCIT 2008, Rio de Janeiro, ABCM, 2008. v.1. p.1-8.</p><p> </p><p> </p><p>"Modeling and Simulation of the Thermal and Psychrometric Transient Response of All Electric Ships, Internal Compartments and Cabinets", J.C.Vargas, J.C. Ordonez, and R. Hovsapian, Summer Computer Simulation Conference, SCSC2007, July 15-18, 2007, San Diego CA.</p><p> </p><p>"Optimal electrical design of spherical photovoltaic cells", A.M. Morega, J.C. Ordonez, P.A. Negoias, M. Morega, and R. Hovsapian, COMSOL Conference Prague October 2006.</p><p> </p><p>"Thermodynamic analysis of 5MW dynamometer set to simulate ship propulsion and propulsion load of an electrical ship", R. Hovsapian, J.C. Ordonez, J. V. C. Vargas, P. G. McLaren, The Brazilian Congress of Thermal Engineering and Sciences – ENCIT 06.</p><p> </p><p>"The CAPS-SNL power system security testbed", J. Tang, R.Hovsapian, M. Sloderbeck, J. Langston, R. Meeker,P.G. McLaren, D.Becker, B. Richardson,  M. Baca, J. Trent, Z. Hartley, R. Parks, S. Smith, CRIS, Third International Conference on Critical Infrastructures, Alexandria, VA, September  2006.</p><p> </p><p>"Spherical Photovoltaic Cells – A Constructal Approach to their Optimization", A.M.  Morega, J.C. Ordonez, A.P. Negoias, and R. Hovsapian, 10th International Conference on Electrical and Electronic Equipment OPTIM '06, May, 2006, Moeciu-Braşov, Romania.</p><p> </p><p>"Military Products from Commercial Lines: Product Data Management (PDM)", Rob Hovsapian and Mark Myers, TRW Avionics System Division, Ref. Number: MI-CIM-LL003 (US-Air Force – AFRL Document), November 1998.</p><p> </p><p>"Military Products from Commercial Lines: The Quality Model", Rob Hovsapian, TRW Avionics System Division, Ref. Number: MI-CIM-LL005 (US-Air Force – AFRL Document), November 1998 (US-Air Force – AFRL Document).</p><p> </p><p>"Military Products from Commercial Lines CIM (Computer Integrated Manufacturing) System Integration", Rob Hovsapian, TRW Avionics System Division, Ref. Number: MI-CIM-LL004 (US-Air Force – AFRL Document), November 1996.</p><p> </p><p>"CIM (Computer Integrated Manufacturing) High Level Design Documentation", Rob Hovsapian, TRW Avionics System Division, Ref. Number: MI-CIM-LL002 (US-Air Force – AFRL Document), July 1996.</p><p> </p><p>"Non-intrusive Integration of CIM Upgrades", Rob Hovsapian, TRW Avionics System Division, Mary Kinsella, AF Wright Laboratory Man Tech Directorate, Ref. Number: MI-CIM-LL001 (US-Air Force – AFRL Document), October 16, 1995.</p><p> </p><p>"Design of a Lightweight High Precision Robot ARM", Z. Rob (Ossib) Hovsapian and P.J. Hollis, The Second Conference on Recent Advances in Robotics. May 1989, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, Florida.</p><p> </p><p> </p><p>"The Design and Control of a Micron-Accuracy Robot Arm", Z. Rob (Ossib) Hovsapian and P.J. Hollis, IEEE 21st Southeastern Symposium on System Theory, March 1989, Tallahassee, Florida. </p><p> </p><p> </p></div>Power and Energy Systems;Hydrogen and Fuel Cellshttps://bios.inl.gov/BioPhotos/RobLinkedIn.jpg<div class="ExternalClassC637775D2B63466DB9E89E491CB51381"><a href="https://www.linkedin.com/pub/rob-hovsapian/61/699/811">LinkedIn</a></div>Department Manager, Power and Energy Systems LRM - EERE Water Power Technologies Office LRM - Grid Modernization Lab Consortia
Kevin Kenneyhttps://bios.inl.gov/Lists/Researcher/DisplayOverrideForm.aspx?ID=74Kevin KenneyKevin L. Kenney is director of Idaho National Laboratory’s Biomass Feedstock National User Facility. He is responsible for the facility’s outreach, partnership and industry engagement activities, also for project planning and execution, and reporting project impacts to the U.S. Department of Energy. Before taking his present position in 2012, he was principal investigator for INL biomass harvest, collection, and storage research. He developed feedstocks logistics modeling and analysis capability at INL from 2005 to 2007, was lead engineer and developer of an Autonomous Combine Control System CRADA with CNH Global from 2002 to 2005, and received• Recipient of multiple patents in areas of industrial sensing and controls. He earned his bachelor’s and master’s in metallurgical and materials engineering from Colorado School of Mines.<div class="ExternalClassB2DD568E7909472D961CCDDD03432049"><p>​M.S., Metallurgical and Materials Engineering - Colorado School of Mines</p><p>B.S., Metallurgical and Materials Engineering - Colorado School of Mines</p></div><div class="ExternalClass8A5736A3E44B472B879430A17797D8CF"><p>​American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE)</p></div><div class="ExternalClass32FC47CF03B842728C60BD125E24CE46"><p>Kenney KL, Cafferty KG, Jacobson JJ. Feedstock Supply System Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels. Design Pathway: Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons. INL/EXT-13-30342. 2013.</p><p> </p><p>Kenney KL, Smith WA, Gresham GL, Westover TL. Perspectives on Biomass as a Feedstock for Existing Conversion Technologies. Biofuels 4(1), 111-127, 2013.</p><p> </p><p>Bonner IJ, Kenney KL. Moisture Sorption Characteristics and Modeling of Energy Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench). The Journal of Stored Products Research, 52:128-136, 2013.</p><p> </p><p>Smith WA, Bonner IJ, Kenney KL, Wendt LM. Practical Considerations of Moisture in Baled Biomass Feedstocks. Biofuels 4(1), 95-110, 2013.</p><p> </p><p>Tumuluru JS, Wright CT, Kenney KL, Hess JR. A review on biomass densification systems to develop uniform feedstock commodities for bioenergy application, BioFPR, 2011.</p><p> </p><p>Searcy EM, Blackwelder DB, Delwiche ME, Ray AE, Kenney KL. Impact of Screening on Behavior during Storage and Cost of Ground Small Diameter Pine Trees: A Case Study. Forest Products Journal 61(7), 570-578, 2011. </p><p> </p><p>Hess JR, Kenney KL, Wright CT, Perlack R, Turhollow A.  Corn Stover Availability for Biomass Conversion: Situation Analysis.  Cellulose, 16:599-619, 2009. </p><p> </p><p>Hess JR, Wright CT, Kenney KL.  Cellulosic Biomass Feedstocks and Logistics for Ethanol Production.  Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining, 1:181-190, 2009.</p><p> </p><p>Foust TD, Ibsen KN, Dayton DC, Hess JR, Kenney KL. 2008. “The Biorefinery.” Biomass Recalcitrance: Deconstructing the Plant Cell Wall for Bioenergy. Ed. Michael Himmel. Oxford:Blackwell, 2008 (book chapter).</p></div>Biomass Feedstock National User Facility https://bios.inl.gov/BioPhotos/Kevin%20Kenney.JPGDirector, Biomass Feedstock National User Facility (BFNUF) LRM - EERE Bioenergy Technologies Office
Boryann Liaw, Ph.D.https://bios.inl.gov/Lists/Researcher/DisplayOverrideForm.aspx?ID=305Boryann Liaw, Ph.D.Dr. Bor Yann Liaw is manager of the Energy Storage and Advanced Vehicles Department at Idaho National Laboratory. Before joining INL, Dr. Liaw was a specialist and tenured faculty member at the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute of the University of Hawaii at Manoa. At HNEI, he focused on advanced power source systems for vehicle and energy storage applications. He received his bachelor’s in chemistry from the National Tsinghua University in Taiwan, his master’s in chemistry from the University of Georgia, and his doctorate in materials science and engineering from Stanford University. He conducted his post-doctoral fellowship research at the Max-Plank Institute of Solid State Research in Stuttgart, Germany. For the past three decades, Dr. Liaw has been involved in R&D projects related to electric and hybrid vehicle evaluation and advanced battery diagnostics and prognostics. His major research activities comprise laboratory and real-life battery and vehicle testing, data collection and analysis, battery modeling and simulation, battery performance and life prediction, battery rapid charging technology development, and battery diagnoses and prognoses. He also expanded his endeavors to bio-fuel cells, including sugar-air alkaline battery development, and transforming ambient energy resources into useful power sources for portable or stationary applications. Dr. Liaw has co-authored more than 150 technical papers, seven book chapters, and eight patents and patent applications. He is currently an associate editor for the Journal of Electrochemical Society and a Fellow of the Electrochemical Society.<div class="ExternalClass8DFB2D417F704D988FB3616CACD8FCC9"><p>​Ph.D., Materials Science and Engineering - Stanford University</p><p>M.S., Chemistry -  University of Georgia</p><p>B.S., Chemistry - National Tsing-Hua University</p></div><div class="ExternalClassC1867C83B688429FB3ED262EC9AB5A4E"><p><strong>Journal Publications</strong></p><strong><font face="Thread-00001db0-Id-00000025"></font></strong><p>D. Anseán, M. Dubarry, A. Devie, B.Y. Liaw, V.M. García, J.C. Viera, M. González, “Operando lithium plating quantification and early detection of a commercial LiFePO4 cell cycled under dynamic driving schedule.” J. Power Sources 356 (2017) 36–46.</p><p> </p><p>Z. Li, J. Huang, B.Y. Liaw, J. Zhang, “On state-of-charge determination for lithium-ion batteries.” J. Power Sources 348 (2017) 281–301.</p><p> </p><p>Y. Liu, Z. Lou, S. Song, K. Wu, N. Wu, J. Huang, J. Zhang, B.Y. Liaw, “Electrochemical investigations on the degradation mechanism of lithium-ion power battery with LiMn2O4 + LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 blended positive electrode.” J. Automotive Safety and Energy 7 (2016) 313–321.</p><p> </p><p>A. Devie, M. Dubarry, H-P. Wu, T-H. Wu, B.Y. Liaw, “Overcharge study in Li4Ti5O12 based lithium-ion pouch cell II. Experimental investigation of the degradation mechanism.” J. Electrochem. Soc. 163 (2016) A2611–2617.</p><p> </p><p>D. Anseán, M. Dubarry, A. Devie, B.Y. Liaw, V.M. García, J.C. Viera, M. González, “Fast charging technique for high power LiFePO4 batteries: a mechanistic analysis of aging.” J. Power Sources 321 (2016) 201–209.</p><p><br>M. Provera1, Z. Han, K. Honda, B.Y. Liaw, W.W. Su, “Electrochemical power generation from culled papaya fruits.” J. Electrochem. Soc. 163 (2016) A1457–A1459.</p><p><br>M. Dubarry, A. Devie, B.Y. Liaw, “Cell-balancing currents in parallel strings of a battery system.” J. Power Sources 321 (2016) 36–46.</p><p><br>L. Su, J. Zhang, J. Huang, H. Ge, Z. Li, F. Xie, B.Y. Liaw, “Path dependence of lithium ion cells aging under storage conditions.” J. Power Sources 315 (2016) 35–46.</p><p><br>J. Huang, Z. Li, B.Y. Liaw, J. Zhang, “Graphical analysis of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy data in Bode and Nyquist representations.” J. Power Sources 309 (2016) 82–98.</p><p><br>J. Huang, Z. Li, B.Y. Liaw, S. Song, N. Wu, J. Zhang, “Entropy coefficient of a blended electrode in a lithium-ion cell.” J. Electrochem. Soc. 162 (2015) A2367–A2371.</p><p><br>S. Sepasi, R. Ghorbani, B.Y. Liaw, “Inline state of health estimation of lithium-ion batteries using state of charge calculation.” J. Power Sources 299 (2015) 246–254.</p><p><br>M. Dubarry, C. Truchot, A. Devie, B.Y. Liaw, K. Gering, S. Sazhin, D. Jamison, C. Michelbacher, “Evaluation of commercial lithium-ion cells based on composite positive electrode for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) applications. Part IV. Over-discharge phenomena.” J. Electrochem. Soc. 162 (2015) A1787–A1792.</p><p><br>J. Xiao, J.Z. Hu, H. Chen, M. Vijayakumar, J. Zheng, H. Pan, E.D. Walter, M. Hu, X. Deng, J. Feng, B.Y. Liaw, M. Gu, Z.D. Deng, D. Lu, S. Xu, C. Wang, J. Liu, “Following the transient reactions in lithium-sulfur batteries using an in situ nuclear magnetic resonance technique.” Nano Lett. 15 (2015) 3309−3316. DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b00521.</p><p><br>A. Devie, M. Dubarry, B.Y. Liaw, “Overcharge study in Li4Ti5O12 based lithium-ion pouch cell I. Quantitative diagnosis of degradation modes.” J. Electrochem. Soc. 162 (2015) A1033–A1040.</p><p><br>M. Dubarry, C. Truchot, A. Devie, B.Y. Liaw, “State-of-charge determination in lithium-ion battery packs based on two-point measurements in life.” J. Electrochem. Soc. 162 (2015) A877–A884.</p><p><br>B. Sun, J. Jiang, F. Zheng, W. Zhao, B.Y. Liaw, H. Ruan, Z. Han, W. Zhang, “Practical state of health estimation of power batteries based on Delphi method and grey relational grade analysis.” J. Power Sources 282 (2015) 146–157.</p><p><br>Q. Wang, J. Zheng, E. Walter, H. Pan, D. Lv, P. Zuo, H. Chen, Z.D. Deng, B.Y. Liaw, X. Yu, X.-Q. Yang, J.-G. Zhang, J. Liu, J. Xiao, “Direct observation of sulfur radicals as reaction media in lithium sulfur batteries.” J. Electrochem. Soc. 162 (2015) A474–A478.</p><p><br>Z. Guo, B.Y. Liaw, X. Qiu, L. Gao, C. Zhang, “Optimal charging method for lithium ion batteries using a universal voltage protocol accommodating aging.” J. Power Sources 274 (2015) 957–964. (<a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2014.10.185">http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpowsour.2014.10.185</a>)</p><p><br>M. Dubarry, A. Devie, B.Y. Liaw, “The value of battery diagnostics and prognostics” J. Energy Power Sources 1 (2014) 242–249.</p><p><br>M. Dubarry, C. Truchot, B.Y. Liaw, “Cell degradation in commercial LiFePO4 cells with high-power and high-energy designs” J. Power Sources 258 (2014) 408–419. (doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2014.02.052)</p><p><br>C. Truchot, M. Dubarry, B.Y. Liaw, “State-of-charge estimation and uncertainty for lithium-ion battery strings.” Appl. Energy 119 (2014) 218–227.</p><p><br>S. Sepasi, R. Ghorbani, B.Y. Liaw, “Improved extended Kalman filter for state of charge estimation of battery pack,” J. Power Sources 255 (2014) 368–376. (doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.12.093)</p><p><br>Z. Li, J. Huang, B.Y. Liaw, V. Metzler, J. Zhang, “A review of lithium deposition in lithium-ion and lithium metal secondary batteries,” J. Power Sources 254 (2014) 168–182. (doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.12.099)</p><p><br>Z. Guo, X. Qiu, G. Hou, B.Y. Liaw, C. Zhang, “State of health estimation for lithium ion batteries based on charging curves,” J. Power Sources 249 (2014) 457–462. (doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.10.114)</p><p><br>R. Eustis, T.M. Tsang, B. Yang, D.M. Scott, B.Y. Liaw, “Seeking effective dyes as mediators for a reducing-sugar-air alkaline battery/fuel cell” J. Power Sources 248 (2014) 1133–1140. (doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.10.022)</p><p><br>S. Sepasi, R. Ghorbani, B.Y. Liaw, “A novel on-board state-of-charge estimation method for aged Li-ion batteries based on model adaptive extended Kalman filter” J. Power Sources 245 (2014) 337–344. (doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.06.108)</p><p><br>M. Dubarry, C. Truchot, B.Y. Liaw, “Synthesize battery degradation modes via a diagnostic and prognostic model,” J. Power Sources 219 (2012) 204–216. (doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2012.07.016)</p><p><br>M. Dubarry, C. Truchot, B.Y. Liaw, K. Gering, S. Sazhin, D. Jamison, C. Michelbacher, “Evaluation of commercial lithium-ion cells based on composite positive electrode for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle applications. Part III. Aging through temperature excursions,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 160 (2012) A191–A199. </p><p><br>M. Dubarry, B.Y. Liaw, M-S. Chen, S-S. Chyan, K-C. Han, W-T. Sie, S-H. Wu, “Identifying battery aging mechanisms in large format Li ion cells,” J. Power Sources 196 (2011) 3420–3425. (doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2010.07.029)</p><p><br>M. Cugnet, B.Y. Liaw, “Effect of discharge rate on charging a lead-acid battery simulated by mathematical model,” J. Power Sources 196 (2011) 3414–3419. (doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2010.07.089)</p><p><br>K.L. Gering, S.V. Sazhin, D.K. Jamison, C.J. Michelbacher, B.Y. Liaw, M. Dubarry, M. Cugnet, “Investigation of path dependence in commercial lithium-ion cells chosen for plug-in hybrid vehicle duty cycle protocols,” J. Power Sources 196 (2011) 3395–3403. (doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2010.05.058)</p><p><br>M. Dubarry, C. Truchot, M. Cugnet, B.Y. Liaw, K.L. Gering, S.V. Sazhin, D.K. Jamison, C.J. Michelbacher, “Evaluation of commercial lithium-ion cells based on composite positive electrode for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) applications. Part I. Initial characterizations,” J. Power Sources 196 (2011) 10328–10335. (doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2011.08.077)</p><p><br>M. Dubarry, C. Truchot, B.Y. Liaw, K.L. Gering, S.V. Sazhin, D.K. Jamison, C.J. Michelbacher, “Evaluation of commercial lithium-ion cells based on composite positive electrode for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) applications. Part II. Degradation mechanism under 2C cycle aging,” J. Power Sources 196 (2011) 10336–10343. (doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2011.08.078)</p><p><br>D.M. Scott, T.H. Tsang, L. Chetty, S. Aloi, B.Y. Liaw, “Mechanistic understanding of monosaccharide-air flow battery electrochemistry,” J. Power Sources 196 (2011) 10556-10562. (doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2011.08.082)</p><p><br>M. Dubarry, N. Vuillaume, B.Y. Liaw, “Origins and accommodation of cell variations in Li-ion battery pack modeling,” Int. J. Energy Res. 34 (2010) 216–231.<br>B.Y. Liaw, “Tackle hurdles in battery technology emerging in future smart applications,” Electrochemistry 78 (2010) 317.</p><p><br>M. Dubarry, N. Vuillaume, B.Y. Liaw, “From single cell model to battery pack simulation for Li-ion batteries,” J. Power Sources 186 (2009) 500–507. (doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2008.10.051)</p><p><br>D. Scott, B.Y. Liaw, “Harnessing electric power from monosaccharides ― A carbohydrate-air alkaline fuel cell mediated by redox dyes,” Energy Environ. Sci. 2 (2009) 965–969.</p><p><br>M. Dubarry, B.Y. Liaw, “Identify capacity fading mechanism in a commercial LiFePO4 Cell,” J. Power Sources 194 (2009) 541–549. (doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2009.05.036)</p><p><br>M.J. Cooney, C. Lau, M. Windmeisser, B.Y. Liaw, T. Klotzbach, S.D. Minteer, “Design of chitosan gel pore structure: towards enzyme catalyzed flow-through electrodes,” J. Mat. Chem. 18 (2008) 667.</p><p><br>D.M. Sun, D. Scott, M.J. Cooney, B.Y. Liaw, “A potential reconstitution platform for PQQ-dependent apo-enzymes,” Electrochem. Solid State Lett. 11 (2008) B101.</p><p><br>V. Svoboda, M. Cooney, B.Y. Liaw, S. Minteer, E. Piles, D. Lehnert, S. Calabrese Barton, R. Rincon, P. Atanassov, “Standardized characterization of electrocatalytic electrodes,” Electroanalysis 20 (2008) 1099.</p><p><br>V. Svoboda, B.Y. Liaw, “In-situ transient study of polymer nano-film growth via simultaneous correlation of charge, mass, and ellipsometric measurements,” Pure Applied Chem. 80 (2008) 2439–2449.</p><p><br>D. Scott, M.J. Cooney, B.Y. Liaw, “Sustainable current generation from the ammonia - polypyrrole interaction,” J. Mat. Chem. 18 (2008) 3216–3222.</p><p><br>J.C. Viera, M. González, B.Y. Liaw, F.J. Ferrero, J.C. Álvarez, J.C. Campo, C. Blanco, “Characterization of 109 Ah Ni–MH batteries charging with hydrogen sensing termination,” J. Power Sources 171 (2007) 1040–1045. (doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2007.05.101)</p><p><br>V. Svoboda, M.J. Cooney, C. Rippolz, B.Y. Liaw, “In-situ characterization of electrochemical polymerization of methylene green on platinum electrodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 154 (2007) D113–116.</p><p><br>M. Dubarry, V. Svoboda, R. Hwu, B.Y. Liaw, “Capacity and power fading mechanism identification from a commercial cell evaluation,” J. Power Sources 165 (2007) 566–572. (doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2006.10.046)</p><p><br>M. Dubarry, V. Svoboda, R. Hwu, B.Y. Liaw, “Capacity loss in rechargeable lithium cells during cycle life testing: The importance of determining state-of-charge,” J. Power Sources 174 (2007) 1121–1125. (doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2007.06.185)</p><p><br>M. Dubarry, B.Y. Liaw, “Development of a universal modeling tool for rechargeable lithium batteries,” J. Power Sources 174 (2007) 856–860. (doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2007.06.157)</p><p><br>M. Dubarry, V. Svoboda, R. Hwu, B.Y. Liaw, “A roadmap to understand battery performance in electric and hybrid vehicle operation,” J. Power Sources 174 (2007) 366–372. (doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2007.06.237)</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, M. Dubarry, “From driving cycle analysis to understanding battery performance in real-life electric hybrid vehicle operation,” in the Special Issue on Hybrid Electric Vehicles, J. Power Sources 174 (2007) 76–88. (doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2007.06.010)</p><p><br>S.D. Minteer, B.Y. Liaw, M.J. Cooney, “Enzyme-based biofuel cells,” Current Opinion in Biotechnology (invited) 18 (2007) 228–234.</p><p><br>P. Atanassov, C. Apblett, S. Banta, S. Brozik, S. Calabrese Barton, M. Cooney, B.Y. Liaw, S. Mukerjee, S.D. Minteer, “Enzymatic biofuel cell,” Interface 16 (2007) 28–31.</p><p><br>M. Dubarry, N. Vuillaume, B.Y. Liaw, T. Quinn, “Vehicle evaluation, battery modeling, and fleet-testing experiences in Hawaii: A roadmap to understanding evaluation data and simulation,” J. Asian Electric Vehicles 5 (2007) 1033−1042.</p><p><br>W. Johnston, N. Maynard, B.Y. Liaw, M.J. Cooney, “In situ measurement of activity and mass transfer effects in enzyme immobilized electrodes,” Enzyme and Microbial Technology 39 (2006) 131.</p><p><br>D.M. Jenkins, B. Chami, M. Kreuzer, G. Presting, A.M. Alvarez, B.Y. Liaw, “Hybridization probe for femtomolar quantification of selected nucleic acid sequences on a disposable electrode,” Anal. Chem. 78 (2006) 2314.</p><p><br>M. Dubarry, V. Svoboda, R. Hwu, B.Y. Liaw, “Incremental capacity analysis and close-to-equilibrium OCV measurements to quantify capacity fade in commercial rechargeable lithium batteries,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 9 (2006) A454.</p><p><br>A., Konash, M.J. Cooney, B.Y. Liaw, D.M. Jameson, “Characterization of enzyme-polymer interaction using fluorescence,” J. Materials Chem. 16 (2006) 4107.</p><p><br>W.A. Johnston, B.Y. Liaw, R. Sapra, M.W.W. Adams, M.J. Cooney, “Design and characterization of redox enzyme electrodes: New perspectives on established techniques with application to an extremeophilic hydrogenase,” Enzyme and Microbial Technology 36 (2005) 540.</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, R.G. Jungst, G. Nagasubramanian, H.L. Case, D.H. Doughty, “Modeling capacity fade in lithium-ion cells,” J. Power Sources 140 (2005) 157.</p><p><br>M. Dubarry, M. Bonnet, B. Dailliez, A. Teeters, B.Y. Liaw, “Analysis of electric vehicle usage of a Hyundai Santa Fe fleet in Hawaii,” J. Asian Electric Vehicles 3 (2005) 657-663.</p><p><br>H. Wenzl, I. Baring-Gould, R. Kaiser, B.Y. Liaw, P. Lundsager, J. Manwell, A. Ruddell, V. Svoboda, “Life prediction of batteries for selecting the technically most suitable and cost effective battery,” J. Power Sources 144 (2005) 373.</p><p><br>X.G. Yang, B.Y. Liaw, “Self-discharge and charge retention in AB2-based Ni-MH batteries,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151 (2004) A137.</p><p><br>X.G. Yang, B.Y. Liaw, “Numerical simulation on fast charging Ni-MH traction batteries,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 151 (2004) A265.</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, G. Nagasubramanian, R.G. Jungst, D.H. Doughty, “Modeling of lithium ion cells,” Solid State Ionics 175 (2004) 835.</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, “Fuzzy-logic based driving pattern recognition for driving cycle analysis,” J. Asian Electric Vehicles 2 (2004) 551.</p><p><br>R.G. Jungst, G. Nagasubramanian, H.L. Case, B.Y. Liaw, A. Urbina, T.L. Paez, D.H. Doughty, “Accelerated calendar and pulse life analysis of lithium-ion cells,” J. Power Sources 119-121 (2003) 870.</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, R.G. Jungst, E.P. Roth, G. Nagasubramanian, H.L. Case, D.H. Doughty, “Correlation of Arrhenius behaviors on power and capacity fades, impedance, and static heat generation in lithium ion cells,” J. Power Sources 119-121 (2003) 874–886. (doi:10.1016/S0378-7753(03)00196-4)</p><p><br>A. Urbina, T.L. Paez, R.G. Jungst, B.Y. Liaw, “Inductive modeling of lithium-ion cells,” J. Power Sources 110 (2002) 430.</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, K.P. Bethune, X.G. Yang, “Advanced integrated battery testing and simulation,” J. Power Sources 110 (2002) 330–340. (PII: S0378-7753(02)00195-7)</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, X.G. Yang, “Reliable fast charge of nickel metal hydride batteries,” Solid State Ionics 152-153 (2002) 51.</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, X.G. Yang, K. Bethune, “Integrated battery simulation and characterization,” Solid State Ionics 152-153 (2002) 217.</p><p><br>T. Quinn, B.Y. Liaw, “Electric vehicle rapid charging infrastructure in Hawaii,” SAE Technical Paper 2000-01-1606, IEEE Transactions J. Engines (2001).</p><p><br>X.G. Yang, B.Y. Liaw, “Charge performance of a commercial nickel metal hydride EV battery system,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 148 (2001) A1023.</p><p><br>X.G. Yang, B.Y. Liaw, “Rapid charge of traction nickel metal hydride batteries,” J. Power Sources 101 (2001) 158.</p><p><br>X.G. Yang, B.Y. Liaw, “In-situ electrochemical investigations of the kinetic and thermodynamic properties of nickel-metal hydride traction batteries,” J. Power Sources 102 (2001) 186.</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, X.G. Yang, “Limiting process and mechanism in rapid charging Ni-MH cells,” Electrochimica Acta 47 (2001) 875.</p><p><br>W.B. Gu, C.Y. Wang, S.M. Li, M.M. Geng, B.Y. Liaw, “Modeling discharge and charge characteristics of nickel-metal hydride batteries,” Electrochimica Acta 44 (1999) 4525.</p><p><br>W.B. Gu, C.Y. Wang, B.Y. Liaw, “The use of computer simulation in the evaluation of electric vehicle batteries,” J. Power Sources 75 (1998) 151.</p><p><br>C.Y. Wang, W.B. Gu, B.Y. Liaw, “Micro-macroscopic coupled modeling of batteries and fuel cells, I. model development,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 145 (1998) 3407.</p><p><br>W.B. Gu, C.Y. Wang, B.Y. Liaw, “Micro-macroscopic coupled modeling of batteries and fuel cells, II. application to nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride cells,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 145 (1998) 3418.</p><p><br>W.B. Gu, C.Y. Wang, B.Y. Liaw, “Numerical modeling of coupled electrochemical and transport processes in lead-acid batteries,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 144 (1997) 2053.</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, R.E. Rocheleau, Q-H. Gao, “Thin film yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia,” Solid State Ionics 92 (1996) 85.</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, G. Deublein, R.A. Huggins, “Electrochemical studies of kinetic properties of titanium- and vanadium-hydrogen systems at intermediate temperatures using molten salt techniques,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 142 (1995) 2196.</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, Y. Ding, “Charging hydrogen into Ni in hydride-containing molten salts,” Trans. Fusion Tech. 26 (1994) 63.</p><p><br>X.Z. Li, G.S. Huang, D.W. Mo, B.Y. Liaw, “The analysis of the neutron emission from the glow discharge in deuterium gas tube and the gas loading in palladium,” Trans. Fusion Tech. 26 (1994) 384.</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, P-L Tao, B.E. Liebert, “Helium analysis of palladium electrodes after molten-salt electrolysis,” Fusion Technology 23 (1993) 92.</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, J. Liu, A. Menne, W. Weppner, “Kinetic principles for new types of solid state ionic gas sensors,” Solid State Ionics 53-56 (1992) 18.</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, G. Deublein, R.A. Huggins, “Investigation of thermodynamic properties of the Ti-H system using molten salt electrolytes containing hydride ions,” J. Alloys and Compounds 189 (1992) 175.</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, P-L. Tao, P. Turner, B.E. Liebert, “Elevated-temperature excess heat production in the Pd-D system,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 319 (1991) 161; err. 332 (1992) 371.</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, I.D. Raistrick, R.A. Huggins, “Thermodynamic and structural considerations of insertion reactions in lithium vanadium bronze structures,” Solid State Ionics 45 (1991) 323.</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, W. Weppner, “Low temperature limiting-current oxygen sensors based on tetragonal zirconia polycrystals,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 138 (1991) 2478.</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, W. Weppner, “Low temperature limiting-current oxygen sensors using tetragonal zirconia as solid electrolytes,” Solid State Ionics 40/41 (1990) 428.</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, R.A. Huggins, “Demonstration of a composite solid/liquid/ solid electrolyte configuration for hydrogen-related applications,” Z. Chem. Phys. N. F. 164 (1989) 1533.</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, S.W. Orchard, C. Kutal, “Photobehavior of copper(I) compounds. 4. Role of the triplet-state of (arylphosphine)-copper(I) complexes in the photosensitized isomerization of dienes,” Inorg. Chem. 27(8) (1988) 1309.</p><p><br>G. Deublein, B.Y. Liaw, R.A. Huggins, “Controlled electrolyte environments and their use for studying and modifying materials properties; potentials for employment in practical devices,” Solid State Ionics 28/30 (1988) 1078.</p><p><br>G. Deublein, B.Y. Liaw, R.A. Huggins, “Hydrogen-conducting electrolyte configurations,” Solid State Ionics 28/30 (1988) 1084.</p><p><br>G. Deublein, B.Y. Liaw, R.A. Huggins, “Novel electrochemical hydrogen sensors for use at elevated temperatures,” Solid State Ionics 28/30 (1988) 1660.</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, I.D. Raistrick, R.A. Huggins, “The thermodynamics and kinetics of the gamma-lithium vanadium bronze structure,” Solid State Ionics 18/19 (1986) 828.</p><p> </p><p><strong>Book Chapters</strong><br>B.Y. Liaw, F. Wang, Y. Wei, “Managing safety risk by cell manufacturers” in Safety of Lithium Batteries, J. Garche and K. Brandt, eds. Chapter 7.1, Elsevier, 2017. In print.</p><p> </p><p>M. Cugnet, B.Y. Liaw, “Mathematical modeling of lead-acid batteries” in Lead-Acid Rechargeable Batteries – Fundamentals, Technologies and Applications, J. Jung, J. Zhang, L. Zhang, Eds. Chapter 9. CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Co., Boca Raton, FL, 2014. </p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, M. Dubarry, “A roadmap to understand battery performance in electric and hybrid vehicle operation,” in Electric and Hybrid Vehicles. Power Sources, Models, Sustainability, Infrastructure and the Market, G. Pistoia, Ed., Elsevier Science BV, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 2010. Chapter 15, pp 375–403.</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, “In situ characterizations of porous media for applications in biofuel cells: Issues and challenges,” in Porous Media: Applications in Biological Systems and Biotechnology, Z. Vafai, Ed. CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Co., Boca Raton, FL, 2010. Chapter 13, pp. 489–522.</p><p><br>M. Cugnet, M. Dubarry, B.Y. Liaw, “Modeling,” in Encyclopedia of Electrochemical Power Sources, J. Garche, C.K. Dyer, P. Moseley, Z. Ogumi, D. Rand, B. Scrosati, Eds. Elsevier, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 2009. Volume 4, pp. 816–828.</p><p><br>M. Cooney, B.Y. Liaw, “In situ characterization techniques for design and evaluation of micro and nano enzyme-catalyzed power sources,” in Nano-scale Science and Technology in Biomolecular Catalysis, H.S. Kim, J.B, Kim, and P. Wang, Eds. ACS Symposium Series 986, the American Chemical Soc., Cleveland, OH, 2008. Chapter 19, pp. 289–333.</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, D. D. Friel, “Battery management and life prediction,” in Industrial Applications of Batteries: From Electric Vehicles to Satellites, M. Broussely, G. Pistoia, Eds. Elsevier Science BV, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 2007. Chapter 13, pp. 649–689.</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, “Electrochemical aspects of ionic solids,” in Electrical Properties of Oxide Materials, Key Engineering Materials series, J. Nowotny and C.C. Sorrell, Eds. Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland, 1996. Vol. 125-126, pp. 133–161.</p><p><br><strong>Edited Volumes</strong><br>B.Y. Liaw, R. Kostecki, “In situ characterization of lithium-ion battery materials, electrodes, and cells,” Interface Fall issue (2011) 41.</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, R. Yazami, G.E. Blomgren, R.J. Brodd, A.N. Dey, Proc. IBA-HBC 2006, B.Y. Liaw et al., J. Power Sources 165 (2007) 489.</p><p><br>R.G. Jungst, J.W. Weidner, B.Y. Liaw, K. Nechev, eds., Power Source Modeling, Symposium Proc. The 202th Electrochemical Society Meeting, Salt Lake City, UT, October 20-25, 2002, the Electrochem. Soc., Inc., Pennington, NJ.</p><p> </p><p><strong>Peer-reviewed Conference Proceedings</strong></p><p>M. Dubarry, N. Vuillaume, B.Y. Liaw, “From Li-ion single cell model to battery pack simulation”, for the invited session "Modeling, Estimation and Control of Hybrid Electrical Vehicles Batteries", in the Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Control Applications (CCA2008), San Antonio, Texas, September 3-5, 2008, Domenico Di Domenico and Giovanni Fiengo, eds. </p><p><br>Liaw, B.Y., J. Liu, W. Weppner, “Amperometric Tetragonal Zirconia Sensors,” in Science and Technology of Zirconia V, S. P. S. Badwal, M. J. Bannister and R. H. J. Hannink, eds., (Technomic Publishing Co., Lancaster, PA, 1993) p.611.</p><p><br>Liaw, B.Y., B.E. Liebert, “A Potential Shuttle Mechanism for Charging Hydrogen Species into Metals in Hydride-Containing Molten Salt Systems,” Proc. 3rd Int. Conf. on Cold Fusion, October 21-25, 1992, Nagoya, Japan, The Frontiers of Cold Fusion, H. Ikegame, ed., (Universal Academy Press, 1992) p.401.</p><p><br>Liaw, B.Y., P-L. Tao, B.E. Liebert, “Recent Progress on Cold Fusion Research Using Molten Salt Techniques,” Proceedings of the 2nd Annual Conference on Cold Fusion, June 29-July 4, 1991, Como, Italy, The Science of Cold Fusion, T. Bressani, E. Del Giudice, and G. Preparata, eds., (Italian Physical Society Conf. Proc. Vol. 33, S.I.F., Bologna, 1991) p.55.</p><p> </p><p><strong>Conference Proceedings</strong><br>Y. Zhang, X. Li, L. Su, Z. Li, B. Liaw, J. Zhang, “Lithium plating detection and quantification in Li-ion cells from degradation” ECS Transactions, 75 (23) (2017) 37-50. </p><p> </p><p>B.Y. Liaw, A. Devie, M. Dubarry, “The value of battery diagnostics and prognostics” Proc. of the 46th Power Sources Conference, Article 33.5, Orlando, FL, June 9–12, 2014. </p><p><br>A. Devie, M. Dubarry, B.Y. Liaw, “Diagnostics of Li-ion commercial cells – Experimental case studies.” Electrochem. Soc. Trans. Xx (2014) xxx.</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, “Sweet Power – Harnessing Energy from Sugars” Proc. the 9th International Symposium on Novel Carbon Resource Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan, November 2-3, 2012. IN-10, pp. 44.</p><p><br>M. Dubarry, C. Truchot, B.Y. Liaw, “A Unique Mechanistic Model for Battery Diagnosis and Prognosis” Proc. of the 45th Power Sources Conference, Las Vegas, NV, June 11-14, 2012.</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, D. Scott, S. Li, “A Cost Effective Battery Built from Partial Oxidation of Reducing Sugars and Air” Proc. of the 45th Power Sources Conference, Las Vegas, NV, June 11-14, 2012.</p><p><br>M. Cugnet, M. Dubarry, B.Y. Liaw, “Peukert’s law of a lead-acid battery simulated by a mathematical model,” Electrochem. Soc. Trans. 25 (2010) 223.</p><p><br>S. Busquet, J. Torres, M. Dubarry, M. Ewan, B.Y. Liaw, L. Cutshaw, R. Rocheleau, “Comparison of Photovoltaic Module Performance at Pu’u Wa’a Wa’a”, Proc. of the 35th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), Honolulu, HI, June 20-25, 2010.</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, M. Dubarry, “Seeking the Best Battery System Suitable for Electrical Energy Storage”, Proc. EESAT 2009, Seattle, WA, October 4-7, 2009.</p><p><br>M. Dubarry, N. Vuillaume, B. Y. Liaw, “Analysis of a Hybrid Power Source Using Fuzzy Logic Recognition Tool,” Proc. of 43rd Power Sources Conference, Philadelphia, PA, July 6-10, 2008.</p><p><br>M. Dubarry, B.Y. Liaw, “Diagnostics of a Battery Pack Reliability and Life via Modeling and Simulation”, Proc. of 43rd Power Sources Conference, Philadelphia, PA, July 6-10, 2008.</p><p><br>M. Dubarry, B.Y. Liaw, “Battery State of Health Monitoring Using Electrochemical Techniques”, Proc. of 43rd Power Sources Conference, Philadelphia, PA, July 6-10, 2008.</p><p><br>J.B. Langley, B.Y. Liaw, G. Wagner, “Electrical Power Harvesting from Small Engines”, Proc. of 43rd Power Sources Conference, Philadelphia, PA, July 6-10, 2008.</p><p><br>B.Y. Liaw, M. Dubarry, R. Hwu, “Commercial Cell Evaluation and Capacity Fade Quantification”, Proc. of Lithium Mobile Power 2006, Miami Beach, FL, December 4-5, 2006.</p><p><br>Svoboda, V., M.J Cooney, C. Rippolz, B.Y. Liaw, “Development of an Enzymatic Ethanol Bio-Fuel Cell for Micro-Power Generation,” Fuel Cell Seminar 2006, Honolulu, HI, November 11-15, 2006.</p><p><br>Liaw, B.Y., M. Dubarry, V. Svoboda, R. Hwu, “Battery Service Life Prediction and Capacity Fade Identification” Proc. of the Second International Symposium on Large Lithium Ion Battery Technology and Application (LLIBTA 2006), May 15-17, 2006, Baltimore, MD, Advanced Automotive Batteries Conference.</p><p><br>Liaw, B.Y., B. Dailliez, A. Teeters, K.Y. Youn, C.S. Kim, “Vehicle Usage Analysis for Hyundai Santa Fe Fleet in Hawaii,” Electric Vehicle Symposium-20, Long Beach, CA, November 15-19, 2003.</p><p><br>Yap, K.C., A. Urbina, B.Y. Liaw, R.G. Jungst, “Evolutionary and Adaptive Recurrent Neural Network Modeling for Prediction of Battery Life,” EESAT 2003, San Francisco, CA, October 27-29, 2003.</p><p><br>Liaw, B.Y. R.G. Jungst, A. Urbina, T.L. Paez, Modeling of Battery Life, I. The Equivalent Circuit Model (ECM) Approach,” EESAT 2003, San Francisco, CA, October 27-29, 2003.</p><p><br>Liaw, B.Y., R.G. Jungst, G. Nagasubramanian, H.L. Case, D.H. Doughty, “Modeling Capacity Fade in Lithium Ion Cells,” in Proc.  Symposium on Power Sources for Transportation Applications, 204th Electrochem. Soc. Meetings, Orlando, FL, October 13-16, 2003, ed. A. Landgrebe, et al., the Electrochem. Soc., Inc., Pennington, NJ.</p><p><br>Yang, X.G., B.Y. Liaw, “Mechanistic Model of Charge Retention in AB2-Based Nickel Metal Hydride Systems,” in Proc. Symposium: Power Source Modeling, The 202th Electrochemical Society Meeting, Salt Lake City, UT, October 20-25, 2002, eds., R. G. Jungst, J. W. Weidner, B. Y. Liaw and K. Nechev, the Electrochem. Soc., Inc., Pennington, NJ.</p><p><br>Liaw, B.Y., K.P. Bethune, C.S. Kim, “Time-Series Field Trip Data Analysis Using Adaptive Recognition Approach. Analysis on Driving Patterns and Vehicle Usage for Electric Vehicles,” in Proc. Electric Vehicle Symposium 19, Busan, Korea, October 13-17, 2002.</p><p><br>Jungst, R.G., D.H. Doughty, B.Y. Liaw, G. Nagasubramanian, H.L. Case, E.V. Thomas, “Lithium Ion Cell Accelerated Aging and Life Prediction,” in Proc. 40th Power Sources Conference, Cherry Hill, N.J., June 11-13, 2002.</p><p><br>Yang, X.G, K.P. Bethune, B.Y. Liaw, “Recent Progress on Numerical Simulation of Fast Charging Nickel Metal Hydride Traction Batteries,” in Design and Mathematical Modeling of Electrochemical Systems, Proc. the 201st Electrochemical Society Meetings, Philadelphia, PA, May 12-17, 2002.</p><p><br>Liaw, B.Y., K.P. Bethune, X.G. Yang, “Modeling Rapid Charge Conditions in a VRLA Traction Battery,” in Advanced Batteries and Supercapacitors, Proceedings of the 200th Electrochem. Soc. Meetings, San Francisco, CA, September 3-7, 2001, PV-2001-21, eds. G. Nazri, et al, the Electrochem. Soc., Pennington, NJ.</p><p><br>Yang, X.G., K.P. Bethune, B.Y. Liaw, “In-situ Electrochemical Analysis of Nickel-Metal Hydride Batteries under Fast Charging,” in Advanced Batteries and Supercapacitors, Proceedings of the 200th Electrochem. Soc. Meetings, San Francisco, CA, September 3-7, 2001, PV-2001-21, eds. G. Nazri, et al, the Electrochem. Soc., Pennington, NJ.</p><p><br>Liaw, B.Y., K. Bethune, “On Validation of the Modeling of Overcharge Process in VRLA Cells,” IEEE-01TH8533, Proc. 16th Annual Battery Conference on Applications and Advances, Long Beach, CA, January 9-12, 2001, p. 187-192.</p><p><br>Liaw, B.Y., X.G. Yang, “Rapid Charging Ni-MH Batteries: Limiting Mechanism and Charge Control,” Proc. of Hawaii Battery Conference 2001, Waikoloa, Hawaii, January 3-6, 2001, p. 67-74.</p><p><br>Liaw, B.Y., “Recent Progress in Battery-Related R&D in HEVDP,” Proc. DARPA EV/HEV and DOT AVP Joint Program Review, April 30-May 3, 2000, Baltimore, MD, p. 179.</p><p><br>Quinn, T., B.Y. Liaw, “Electric Vehicle Rapid Charging Infrastructure in Hawaii,” SAE Tech. Paper# 2000-01-1606, Proceedings of Future Car Congress 2000, Arlington, VA, April 2-6, 2000, Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc.</p><p><br>Liaw, B.Y., “Recent Advancements in Dynamic Battery Modeling and Testing,” Proc. of Hawaii Battery Conference 99, January 4-7, 1999, Waikoloa, HI, p. 57.</p><p><br>W.B. Gu, C.Y. Wang, B.Y. Liaw, “Integrated Simulation and Testing of Electric Vehicle Batteries,” IEEE 98TH8299, Proc. of the 13th Annual Battery Conference on Applications and Advances, Long Beach, CA, January 13-16, 1998, p. 141.</p><p><br>Liaw, B.Y., M.M. Geng, W.B. Gu, C.Y. Wang, “Integrated Battery Testing and Simulation in Hawaii Electric Vehicle Demonstration Project,” Proc. Hawaii Battery Conference 98, January 5-7, 1998, Waikoloa, HI, p. 1.<br>Staackmann, M., B.Y. Liaw, D.Y.Y. Yun, “Dynamic Driving Cycle Analyses Using Electric Vehicle Time-Series Data,” #97279 in the Proceedings of the 32nd Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, July 27–August 1, 1997, Honolulu, HI, (American Inst. of Chem. Engineering, N.Y., 1997) Vol. 3, p. 2014.</p><p><br>Liaw, B.Y., W.B. Gu, C.Y. Wang, “Numerical Simulation of Coupled Electrochemical and Transport Processes in Battery Systems,” #97124 in the Proceedings of the 32nd Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, July 27–August 1, 1997, Honolulu, HI, (American Inst. of Chem. Engineering, N.Y., 1997) Vol. 2, p. 899.</p><p><br>Gu, W.B., C.Y. Wang, B.Y. Liaw, “Dynamic Simulation of Ni-Cd and Ni-MH Battery Systems Using CFD Techniques,” in Meeting Abstracts of the 191st Electrochemical Society Meetings, May 4-9, 1997, Montreal, Canada, (the Electrochemical Society, N.J., 1997).</p><p><br>Liaw, B.Y. and S.Y. Song, “Modifying Zirconia Solid Electrolyte Surface Property to Enhance Oxide Transport,” in Proceedings 1996 Fuel Cell Seminar, November 17-20, 1996, Kissimmee, FL, p. 190.<br>Liaw, B.Y. “ARPA's Growing Collection of Data,” Proceedings of SEV-95, NESEA, Providence, RI, November 13-15, 1995.</p><p><br>Liaw, B.Y., “Hawaii Electric Vehicle Demonstration Project (HEVDP),” Proceedings of the 40th Anniversary Symposium on Status of Battery Development for EV and the future of EV, October 21, 1994, Nagoya, Japan, O. Yamamoto, ed., (Japan Electrochemical Society, Tokai Chapter, 1994) p.75.</p><p><br>Liaw, B.Y., “Molten Salt Techniques for Excess Heat Production and the Loading Issue,” Proceedings of the Minsk International Symp. on Cold Fusion and Advanced Energy Sources, May 24-26, 1994, Minsk, Belarus, V. Filimonov and H. Fox, eds.</p><p><br>Liaw, B.Y., Y. Ding, “Charging Hydrogen into Ni in Hydride-Containing Molten Salts,” Proceedings: 4th International Conference on Cold Fusion, 2, 30-1 (1994).</p><p><br>Huang G., D. Mo, W. Yu, M. Yao, X. Li, B.Y. Liaw, “The Measurements and the Control of the Loading Ratio of Deuterium in Palladium,” Proceedings: 4th International Conference on Cold Fusion, 1, 20-1 (1994).</p><p><br>Gao, Q-H., R.E. Rocheleau, B.Y. Liaw, “Thin Film Tetragonal Doped Zirconia: Synthesis and Characterization,” Proc. of the 3rd International Symposium on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, the 183rd Electrochemical Society Meeting, May 16-21, 1993, Honolulu, HI, S. C. Singhal and H. Iwahara, eds., (the Electrochemical Society, Inc., PV93-12, 1993) p.38.</p><p><br>Liaw, B.Y., “Hydride-Containing Molten Salts and Their Technology Implications,” Proc. European Workshop on Electrochemical Technology of Molten Salts, March 14-17, 1993, Sintra, Portugal, C. A. C. Sequeira and G. S. Picard, eds., (Trans Tech Publications, 1993) p.345.</p><p><br>Liaw, B.Y., P-L. Tao, B.E. Liebert, “On Charging Palladium in an Al|LiCl-KCl Eutectic, Excess LiH(D)|Pd Cell,” Proc. of the 8th International Symposium on Molten Salts, 181st Electrochemical Society Meeting, May 17-22, 1992, St. Louis, Missouri, R. J. Gale, G. Blomgren, H. Kojima, eds., (the Electrochemical Society, Inc., PV92-16, 1992) p.1.</p><p><br>Liaw, B.Y., P-L. Tao, P. Turner, B.E. Liebert, “Elevated Temperature Excess Heat Production Using Molten Salt  Electrochemical Techniques,” Special Symposium Proceedings on Cold Fusion, the 8th World Hydrogen Energy Conference, Hawaii, July 22-27, 1990, (Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, 1990) p.49.</p><p><br>Liaw, B.Y., B.T. Ahn, R.A. Huggins, “Electrochemical Studies of the Ternary Li-Si-S System,” Proceedings of the ECS symposium on “Lithium Batteries,” A. N. Dey, ed., (the Electrochemical Soc., Inc. 1987) p.393.</p><p><br>Liaw, B.Y., G. Deublein, R.A. Huggins, “Novel Hydrogen Sensors for Use at Elevated Temperatures,” Proceedings of the ECS symposium on “Chemical Sensors,” D. R. Turner, ed., (the Electrochemical Soc., Inc. 1987) p.91.</p></div>Advanced Vehicles;Energy Storage;Bioenergy Technologies;Hydrogen and Fuel Cellshttps://bios.inl.gov/BioPhotos/Boryann%20Liaw.jpgDepartment Manager, Energy Storage and Advanced Vehicles
Erin Searcy, Ph.D.https://bios.inl.gov/Lists/Researcher/DisplayOverrideForm.aspx?ID=86Erin Searcy, Ph.D.Dr. Erin Searcy is currently the Bioenergy Technologies Department Manager at the Idaho National Lab. Dr. Searcy has had several roles at INL since joining in 2008, including Bioenergy Platform Analysis Lead, principle investigator on several biomass feedstock logistics and sustainability projects, and techno-economic analyst. Dr. Searcy spent almost three years supporting the Bioenergy Technologies Office in Washington, D.C., as a management and operations person employed by the INL. After completing her bachelor’s and master’s degrees in engineering, Dr. Searcy worked as an environmental engineering consultant. She holds a Ph.D. in mechanical engineering, and acted as a sessional instructor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Alberta. <div class="ExternalClass0B42FBE0FB9648128152A8AE1DADF0BD"><div>Ph.D., Mechanical Engineering - University of Alberta</div><div>M.S., Environmental Engineering - University of Manitoba</div><div>B.S., Biosystems Engineering - University of Manitoba</div></div><div class="ExternalClassCD791AC1FC6943FAB397ECC4EADB55D2"><div>Biomass-based energy systems</div><div>Techno-economic assessments</div><div>Feedstock logistics systems</div><div>Life cycle assessment</div></div><div class="ExternalClass91849BF92C4A42449BCC3A53AD6668C6"><span style="font-size:13px;"><div>Searcy, E, P Lamers, J Hansen, J Jacobson, JR Hess, and E Webb. 2015. Advanced Feestock Supply System Validation Workshop Summary Report.  INL/EXT-10-18930. Available at <a href="http://www.bioenergy.inl.gov/">www.bioenergy.inl.gov</a>.</div><div> </div><div><span style="font-size:13px;"><p>Lamers P, Tan E, Searcy E, Hansen J, Scarlata C, Cafferty K, Jacobson J. 2015. Strategic supply system design—a holistic evaluation of operational and production cost for a biorefinery supply chain. Biofuels, Bioproducts, and Biorefining. DOI:10.1002/bbb.1575.</p><p>Searcy E, Hess JR, Tumuluru J, Ovard L, Muth D, Trømborg E, Wild M, Deutmeyer M, Nikolaisen L, Ranta T, Hoefnagels E. Chapter 5: Optimization of Biomass Transport and Logistics. M. Junginger et al. (eds.), International Bioenergy Trade: History, status & outlook on securing sustainable bioenergy supply, demand and markets, Lecture Notes in Energy 17, DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-6982-3_5, © Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014.</p><p>Nguyen L, Cafferty K, Searcy E, et al. 2014. Uncertainties in Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Advanced Biomass Feedstock Logistics Supply Chains in Kansas. Energies 7: 7125-7146.</p><p>Hoefnagels E, Searcy E, Cornelissen T, Junginger M, Jacobson J, Faaij A. 2014. Lignocellulosic feedstock supply systems with intermodal and overseas transportation: Fischer-Tropsch diesel production from internationally sourced biomass. Biofuels, Bioproduction, and Biorefining 27. DOI: 10.1002/bbb.1497.</p><p>Lignocellulosic feedstock supply systems with intermodal and overseas transportation: Fischer-Tropsch diesel production from internationally sourced biomass. Biofuels, Bioproduction, and Biorefining 27. DOI: 10.1002/bbb.1497.</p></span></div><div><br> </div><div>Roni M, Eksioglu S, Searcy E, Jha K. 2014. A supply chain network design model for biomass co-firing in coal-fired power plants. Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review 61: 115–134.</div><div><br> </div><div>Muth D, Langholtz M, Argo A, Tan E, Dutta A, Eaton L, Brandt C, Jacobson J, Searcy E, et al. 2014. Investigation of Thermochemical Biorefinery Sizing and Environmental Sustainability Impacts for Conventional Supply System and Distributed Preprocessing Supply System Designs. Biofuels, Bioproduction, and Biorefining 8:4, 545-567. DOI: 10.1002/bbb.</div><div><br> </div><div>Searcy E, Hess JR, Tumuluru J, Ovard L, Muth DJ, Trømborg E, Wild M, Deutmeyer M, Nikolaisen L, Ranta T, Hoefnagels E. Chapter 5: Optimization of Biomass Transport and Logistics. M. Junginger et al. (eds.), International Bioenergy Trade: History, status & outlook on securing sustainable bioenergy supply, demand and markets, Lecture Notes in Energy 17, DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-6982-3_5, © Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014.</div><div><br> </div><div>Roni MS, Eksioglu SD, Searcy E, Jha K. 2014. A supply chain network design model for biomass co-firing in coal-fired power plants. Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review 61: 115–134.</div><div><br> </div><div>Coats ER, Searcy E, Feris K, Shrestha D, McDonald AG, Briones A, Magnuson T, Prior M. 2013. An integrated two-stage anaerobic digestion and biofuel production process to reduce life cycle GHG emissions from US dairies. Biofuels, Bioproduction, and Biorefining 7: 459–473.</div><div><br> </div><div>Gonzales D, Searcy E, Ekşioğlu SD. 2013. Transportation Cost Analysis for Pre-Processed, Densified Biomass Feedstock. Journal of Transportation Research: Part A 49: 48-61.</div><div><br> </div><div>Jeffers R, Jacobson J, Searcy E. 2013. Dynamic analysis of policy drivers for bioenergy commodity markets. Energy Policy 52: 249-263.</div><div><br> </div><div>Searcy E, Blackwelder D, Delwiche M, Ray A, Kenney K. 2011. Impact of screening on behavior during storage and cost of ground small diameter pine trees: a case study. Forest Products Journal 61:7, 570-578.</div><div><br> </div><div>Dutta A, Talmadge M, Hensley J, Worley M, Dudgeon D, Barton D, Groenendijk P, Ferrari D, Stears B, Searcy E, Wright C, Hess JR. 2011. Process Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Thermochemical Pathway by Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis. Technical Report: NREL/TP-5100-51400.</div><div><br> </div><div>Searcy E, Hess JR. 2010. Uniform-Format Feedstock Supply System Design for Lignocellulosic Biomass: A Commodity-Scale Design to Produce an Infrastructure-Compatible Biocrude from Lignocellulosic Biomass. Technical Report: INL/EXT- 10-20372.</div><div><br> </div><div>Inman D, Nagle N, Jacobson J, Searcy E, Ray A. 2010. Feedstock handling and processing effects on biochemical conversion to biofuels. Biofuels, Bioproduction, and Biorefining 4:562 – 573.</div><div><br> </div><div>Searcy E, Flynn P. 2010. A criterion for selecting renewable energy processes. Biomass and Bioenergy 34:798-804.</div><div><br> </div><div>Searcy E, Flynn P. 2010. Should straw/stover be turned into syndiesel or ethanol? Biomass& Bioenergy 34: 1978-1981.</div><div><br> </div><div>Hess JR, Jacobson J, Karlen D, Muth D, Nelson R, Ovard L, Searcy E, Ulrich T. 2010. The Food Versus Fuels Debate: An Informed Introduction Chapter 4: Agriculture and Land Use Issues. Publisher: Zed Books Ltd., 7 Cynthia Street, London, N1 9JF, England www.zedbooks.co.uk. Editors: Frank Rosillo-Calle (Imperial College London) and Francis X Johnson (Stockholm Environment Institute). ISBN: 9781848133822.</div><div><br> </div><div>Hess JR, Kenney K, Ovard L, Searcy E, Wright C. 2009. Uniform-Format Solid Feedstock Supply System: A Commodity-Scale Design to Produce an Infrastructure-Compatible Bulk Solid from Lignocellulosic Biomass. Technical Report: INL/EXT-08-14752.</div><div><br> </div><div>Searcy E, Flynn P. 2008. The impact of biomass availability and processing cost on optimum size and processing technology selection. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology 154:271–286.</div><div><br> </div><div>Searcy E, Flynn P. 2008. Processing of straw/corn stover: comparison of life cycle emissions. International Journal of Green Energy 5:6, 423 – 437.</div><div><br> </div><div>Searcy E, Flynn P, Ghafoori E, Kumar A. 2007. The relative cost of biomass energy transport. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology 136-140: 639-652.</div><div><br> </div><div>Searcy E, Zhang Q, Cicek N. 2004. The use of a biofilter for reducing off-gas odour from an industrial fermentation process. Environmental Technology 26: 103-1.</div></span></div>Bioenergy Technologies;Analysis and Sustainability;Bioenergy Leadershiphttps://bios.inl.gov/BioPhotos/Erin%20Searcy.JPG<div class="ExternalClassE8CE36F0D7E74791B541DB742CE9E8CC"><div><a href="https://www.linkedin.com/pub/erin-searcy/17/20/104">LinkedIn</a></div></div>Department Manager, Bioenergy Technologies
Fred Stewart, Ph.D.https://bios.inl.gov/Lists/Researcher/DisplayOverrideForm.aspx?ID=187Fred Stewart, Ph.D.Dr. Frederick F. Stewart is manager of the Biological and Chemical Processing Department at the Idaho National Laboratory. He leads a team of 30 to 40 researchers in the biological and chemical sciences. In his current position, he is responsible for technical oversight of research in electrochemical processing, membranes and filtration, chemical synthesis, energy storage materials, computational methods, catalysis, supercritical fluid processing, microbiology, extremophilic organisms, and biomass processing and characterization. His research interests are membrane separations and polymer synthesis where he has been active for over 20 years. Specifically, he is published in the area of phosphazene chemistry and has established methods to functionalize these materials and form them into membranes for harsh chemical separations, such as flue gas carbon capture. He has also developed these materials as lithium battery electrolytes and electrodes. He has published > 90 journal articles, conference proceedings papers, and invited book chapters. Additionally, he has chaired the North American Membrane Society meetings in 2003 and 2013, as well as the 2012 Membranes, Materials and Processes Gordon Research Conference. He earned his Ph.D. in organic chemistry from Montana State University. Since 1997 he has been an adjunct assistant professor of chemistry for the University of Idaho. In 2013 he was honored with an R&D 100 Award with Aaron Wilson and Mark Stone for their work in switchable polarity solvent forward osmosis. <div class="ExternalClassDF853623528F48F1B6474C72996FB603"><p>​Ph.D., Organic Chemistry - Montana State University</p></div>Advanced Manufacturing and Intelligent Systems;Chemical Separations;Bioenergy Technologieshttps://bios.inl.gov/BioPhotos/Fred%20Stewart.jpgDepartment Manager, Biological and Chemical Processing Department