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Evaluation of Conductive and Wireless Charging Systems

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EV Infrastructure Lab
Virtual Tour
 of ​EV Infrastructure​ Lab​

 








 With the push toward electric vehicles (EVs) and away from gas-powered vehicles, a major question looms: Can EVs be charged quickly, efficiently, and user-friendly?


While the automotive industry, battery manufacturers and developers of charging devices work to answer that question, the Electric Vehicle Infrastructure (EVI) laboratory provides the independent, third-party testing and standardization necessary to ensure accuracy and consistency among products. The EVI lab, an integral part of the Advanced Transportation Systems division of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), also works closely with other INL teams to enable successful integration of EV charging devices with future smart grid and microgrid technologies.

 

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TESTING CAPABILITIES

The EVI lab testing capabilities cover conductive and wireless charging devices for sub-system component level testing as well as full system vehicle level testing:

  • Level 1 (120 VAC), Level 2 (208/240VAC), DC Fast Charging

  • Production PHEV and BEV with up to 6.6 kW charging

  • Vehicle Emulator with AC and DC load bank and the necessary communication devices required for charging functionality

  • Laboratory grade Power Meters and Oscilloscope

  • LabVIEW data acquisition system and coordinated test host control

  • Grid Emulator for Steady State and Dynamic Power Quality characterization of vehicle charging systems

  • Wireless Charging specific test capabilities (harmonized with draft SAE J2954 TIR)

    • Coil to coil positioning device (X,Y, and Z)
    • EM field measurement with multi-axis positioning to scan regions around vehicle surface / profile
    • Foreign object proximity evaluation with IR camera measurement

As new charging technologies develop, EVI's capabilities will continue to evolve, catering to future testing needs as they arise.


TYPICAL CHARGING SYSTEM EVALUATION

The EVI team evaluates each charging device to benchmark the state of the technology, identify technology gaps as well as support industry standards development. Typical testing and evaluation includes the following:

  • Power Transfer Efficiency as impacted by charge rate, input voltage, coil gap and misalignment for wireless charging

  • ​​Energy consumption by ancillary loads

  • Power quality of the charging system

    • Power factor
    • Total harmonic distortion (THD)
  • Electric and magnetic (EM) field for wireless charging systems as impacted by coil gap and misalignment, charge rate, measurement proximity from charging system and vehicle profile

  • Foreign object proximity evaluation for temperature rise and charging system response for wireless charging systems

  • Cyber security vulnerabilities are detected and analyzed

    • Operational and communication vulnerabilities
    • Physical hardware security vulnerabilities
    • Develop means to prevent and eliminate vulnerabilities


ESTABLISHING BENCHMARKS FOR SAFETY AND EFFICIENCY

The EVI research group works with the U.S. Department of Energy, the Society of Automotive Engineers, EPA Energy Star, automotive OEMs, industry partners, utilities, and regulators to develop and validate standards for safe, efficient charging stations. EVI testing ensures that:

  • Test setup requirements

  • Test procedures

  • Validation of draft procedures through evaluation of available hardware

  • Charging system interoperability


​GRID IMPACT AND COLLABORATION

Research at the EVI lab occurs in close collaboration with teams across INL in an effort to safely and robustly integrate EV charging systems into the grid and micro-grid environment utilizing smart grid communication. Areas of research include:

  • Evaluating communication capabilities between utility companies and EVs to establish a charging system that responds to blackouts and brownouts, peak energy loads, and fluctuations of renewable resources on a microgrid.

  • Evaluating cyber security risks associated with smart grids to minimize vulnerabilities.

  • Evaluations linked with RTDS via hardware in the loop over a wide range of input conditions


RELATED WEBSITE


                ​chargingsystemtestingwebsite.JPG

Advanced Vehicles Research/Publications​

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Research Contact:  John Smart   -   Phone:  (208) 526-5922   -   John.Smart@inl.gov


 

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